华夏花鸟画史_美术大教师的天赋讯_雅昌情报

Sung Dynasty

九、梅兰竹菊四君子绘画起源于何时?宋代有何著名的梅兰竹菊画家?

据唐朝名画录所载,唐代的花鸟画名家有二十余人,其中以边鸾最为有名。书中说,边鸾少攻丹青,最长于花鸟,折枝草木之妙,未之有也。可知边鸾在花鸟画中,尤擅画折枝的花卉。唐朝名画录中又说边鸾下笔轻利,用色鲜明。大约他的花鸟画是用细劲的钩勒法作轮廓,而以鲜明的色彩填绘的。据记载:贞元中,新罗国献孔雀解舞者,德宗诏(鸾)于玄武殿写貌,一正一背,翠羽生动,金羽辉灼。可见他擅于写生。正如历代名画记。所说:边鸾善画花鸟,精妙之极,至于山花园蔬无不遍写花鸟冠于代而有笔迹。

十、元代花鸟有何特色?有何作家?

HISTORY OF CHINESE FLoWER-AND-BIRD PAINTING

THE RISE OF FLOWER-AND-BIRD PAINTING IN CHINA

(3)昌盛时期 自隋、唐、五代以迄于宋。
(581A.D.一1278A.D.)各部门的艺术繁荣发展,建立了独特的中国民族艺术。

(1)入学 用太学法考试四方画工,摘古人诗句为题,令画工作画。

澳门威尼斯人app,Chin-yu,Huang chu-po,for chrysanthemum. All these great ones
cultivated a land for the development of Four Paragons painting in later
dynasties.

二、中国花鸟画起源赴何时? 在同时代中,古代欧洲各国有无著名的花鸟画家?

中国美术史,可分为下列四个时期:

Through the past long periods of Chinese art,China has developed a very
unique style of flower-and-bird painting. Traces of flower-and-bird
patterns and designs may be found in the relics of ancient pottery
dating back even to the prehistorical period.But the first real
ink-and-brush painting ever known to the world isa painting on silk with
a phoenix in it,dating back to the third century B.C.,of the later
Chou Period.Experts of flower-painting,however,did not appear till the
Tang Dynasty(618-905 A.D.). More than twenty flower painters can be
found in the recordings of the Chinese classic History of Tang Painting.
Among the most famous mentioned in the book are Penn Luen,To
Kwangyen,and Tan Cheon-yau. During the fifty years of the chaotic state
of the Five Dynasties that succeeded the Tang Dynasty flower-and-bird
painting was more prosperous than other divisions of art. Huang Chuen
and Hsu Hsi represented two different schools. The former was regarded
as the founder of the realistic style while the .latter the Chinese
impressionistic.

(1)ORIGINS OF CHINESE PAINTING (3000 B.C. – 220 A.D.)

(4)沉滞时期
自元至清。(1280A.D.一1912A.D.)在艺术上形成了摹拟古人的风习,画家甚多,但创建者较少。

明代写意花鸟画,有代表翰林画院一派的林良和代表文人画一派的陈淳。林良字以善,广东人,天顺中,供奉内廷,着色花果极精巧,尤精于水墨,烟波出没,亮雁巉唼之态,清澹幽邃,树木遒劲如草书。林良之子林郊,字子达,天顺时,诏取天下画工,郊列第一,直武英殿,亦擅水墨翎毛。作为文人墨戏的水墨花鸟画,为明代花鸟画之一特色。陈淳字道复,号白阳山人,作淡墨花卉,生动有致。徐渭字文清,更字文长,号天池,晚号青藤老人,山阴人,善墨戏,笔墨淋漓尽致,亦为文人画的代表作家。

十二、明代有无翰林画院的设立?画风如何?

In the Yuan Dynasty,bamboo in ink was a very popular practice. Great
painters who tackled this art include Kao Fang-shan,Li Shi-chai,Ku
Chiu-sze,Nih YunLin,Wu Chung-kuei,Ku Tin-tze,Chao Men-fu,Kuan
Chung-chi and etc. Among them Li Shichai and ku Chiu-sze,each compiled
a book on bamboo painting,which provides excellent lessons far
beginners. The literati style of painting became the fashion of the day
in the middle period of the Ming Dynasty,and the impressionistic
painting of Four Paragons was right in vogue,which was just to the
taste of the literary circle. Among the famous artists we may count sung
Keh,Wang Pu,and Lu Teh-tze first.The best-known bamboo
painter,however,is Hisa Chan,whose painting describes honestly the
different forms of the bamboo in various weathers.Plum painting in ink
also prospered.Wang Min and Chan Hsien-chang were regarded as the
leading artists in this field. Painters of the Ching Dynasty followed
the tradition of the impressionistic style of the Ming painters. They
even adopted a freer splashy ink technique in the Four Paragons
painting,Shih Tao and Chu Ta,for example,the two descendants of noble
families of the Ming Empire have been noted for their strong
brushstrokes,while Cheng Shih,Li Fang-eng Chin Nung,Wang Shi-sheng
have each been remembered for a distinguished style of painting. Modern
painters like Chao Fei-su,Wu Chang-shih,and Chi Pai-shih have all done
many masterpieces of Four Paragons painting.They practisedan extremely
inspired ink technique.

(4)待遇
.宋代翰林画院,因画家的才艺高低而授以不同的官阶。徽宗政和年间兴画学之后,画院设官六级,又提高了画家的待遇,在宫廷中服绯紫,带佩鱼。而且待诏列班,以画院为首,书院次之,琴院棋玉院等在下。画院中每旬日,蒙恩出御府图轴两匣,命中贵押送至院,以示学人。

(4) THE LESS CREATIVE PERIOD (1280 A.D. – 1912 A.D.)

黄、徐两家都是绘画的世家。黄荃敷子与弟皆善花鸟画,而其少子居菜尤能克传父业。徐熙的孙子崇嗣、;崇勋、崇矩也克绳祖武,而以崇嗣最为有名。

THE FOUR-PARAGONS PAINTING AND THE LITERATI STYLE

(2)THE INTRODUCTION OF FOREIGN ART IN CHINA (220 A.D. – 581 A.D.)

中国花鸟画渊源甚古,石器时代的彩陶,就有花、鸟、鱼的绘画。晚周帛画在湖南长沙出土,是一幅以毛笔醮墨于绢帛上绘制,迄今为止,被发现的最早的中国画。在这张画的重要部份绘上一只凤鸟。南北朝时代画家顾野王,以草、虫、鸟入画,宣和画谱说他画草虫尤工。可知在唐以前,已有花、鸟、鱼、虫的专门画家。不过,把花鸟画作为绘画的一科,发扬起来,成为一种独立的绘画体裁的,则始于唐代(公元六一八九〇年)。在唐代文化和经济发展鼎盛的时候,绘画艺术也大为发达。宋宣和画谱记载说:寺观壁画之盛,以唐为极。这时不但人物画和山水画名家辈出,为后世宗师,即在花鸟画方面,也确立了成为二个独立的体系,为宋元以后的中国花鸟画,开辟了一个新的纪元。

(2)混交时期 魏、晋、南北朝。
(220A.D.一581A.D.)域外文化艺术输入,与中国艺术混交,产生辉煌的成果。

唐朝末年战乱频仍,唐代艺术灿烂之时期,亦于是告终。继承唐业,占有中原者有后梁、后唐、后晋、后汉、后周等五朝之多,是为五代,前后兴诫不过五十余年。五代之外,唐未群雄割据边地,建国称王,传之子孙者,有前蜀、后蜀、南汉、北汉、南平、吴、南唐、闽,楚、吴越等十国之多,故称十国。其中南唐、前后蜀,以军事较少,社会较安宁,而君主又好绘画,于是画家群集于南唐之建业,与西蜀之成都,隐然成为五代艺术之东西二重镇。当时以绘写花鸟画蔚然成风;遂形成花鸟画最繁荣之时代。五代十国的花鸟画,有所谓徐黄二体,徐就是徐熙,黄就是黄荃。这两位画家在画法上很有所建树,在风格上亦各有不同。黄荃是宫庭画师,以像真为尚,徐熙是江南布衣,以写意为其特色。郭若虚在图画见闻志一书裹说:黄家富贵,徐熙野逸。大抵黄荃既属宫庭画师,徐熙则为江南处士,所以前者状宫中奇花怪石、珍禽瑞乌,后者写江湖野竹渊鱼,对象既有不同,画面上的气局也便随之而异了。后世盛传黄荃创钩勒法,徐熙创没骨法。大约黄荃以淡墨钩勒,赋色鲜明,而徐熙笔粗墨重,设色但取辅助笔墨而已。沈括在梦溪笔谈裹说,黄荃画花妙在傅色;用笔极新捆,殆不见墨迹,但以轻色染成,谓之写生。徐熙以墨笔画之,殊草草,略施丹粉而已,神气迥出,别有生动之意。此说可资证明黄、徐画法之不同。

四、试述五代十国花鸟画发展的情形和著名的花鸟画家。

五、试述宋代画院之制度。

The first bamboo painter,mentioned in History of the Ten Countries,was
Madame Li,of the Tang Dynasty. She was a virtuous woman accomplished in
arts. General Ku Tsung-tu conquered Szcchuen and found her there and
married her. She was so sad,we are told,that she used to sit alone
under the moon,watching the shadows of bamboo trees dangling on the
window-panes. With a brush well-soaked in ink she painted accordingly
and that is how,it is said,that bamboo painting in ink began.

徽宗皇帝(赵佶)是北宋末代皇帝,他传位到宋钦宗,宋室就南迁了。他生性聪明,于艺无所不工,尤精于绘事,花鸟画独造其妙。他曾命人编辑宣和画谱今尚传世。又对于翰林图画院特别加以提倡。他主张画家都要有新的创造,专以新意相尚。,因此画艺日趋进步,而徽宗本人也便成了画院中的领袖大画家了。他的花鸟画遗迹尚存者,如日本井上氏所藏的桃鸠图与浅野氏所藏的水仙鹑图。,都很能表现出他的花鸟画的特色。这两图描法细而简,设色艳而沉,布景少而画意愈广阔。桃鸠图仅画一鸠立短枝上,花仅两朵,尊叶数株,在极简单的画面上呈现出一种高贵庄严的气象。水仙鹑图亦祗一鹑侧立坡上,水仙一株略露数花叶,画意亦极广大,与桃鸠图相类,其鸟眼用生漆点睛,取显凸之意。他对书法也很认真,创瘦金体,与他的画风很是配合得宜。

(3)考绩 院中也举行平时考试和进级考试,同样以诗句命题作画。

(1)生长时期 自太古历唐、虞,三代而迄于秦、汉。
(3000B.C.一220A.D.)中华民族艺术,开始发展。

翰林图画院的绘画,要求与宫廷艺术趣味相投合,因而酝酿产生出所谓院体画的作风来。院体画在技巧上着重形似,符合古人绳墨法度,在形式上富丽精致,适合宫廷摆设。

宋代绘画,可分为北宋、南宋两个时期。北宋自公元九六〇年至公元一一二七年,及金兵南下,徽、钦二帝被掳,宋室南渡,是为南宋,时公元一一二七年至一二七九年。北宋的花鸟画家,徐、黄之后,首推赵昌。赵昌字昌之,是四川剑南人。圣朝名画评说他善画花果,初师滕昌佑,后过其艺。宋宣和画谱说:趟昌善画花果,名重一时,;作折枝花极有生意,傅色尤造其妙。图画见闻志说他惟于傅彩,旷代无双。可知他的花为画,是以色彩见胜的。,他很喜欢写生,常常趁朝露未干,跑到花园裹详细观察和描写百花的神态。宋皇朝事实类苑说:每晨朝露下时,逸阑槛谛玩,手中调彩色写之,自号写生赵昌。当时的画家易元吉,见了赵昌的画十分佩服,得到了启发,从事写生,也以设色见长。他跑到深山绝壑,观察獐鹿猿猴的状态神貌,古木奇石的岩巉形势,因此妙得天然,画艺日精。图画见闻志说他始以花果专门,及见赵昌之迹,乃叹服焉,后志欲以古人.所未到者驰其名,遂写獐猿。米芾在画史裹说:易元吉,徐熙后一人而已!善画草木,叶心翎毛如唐。可知对易元吉推崇之极。北宋花鸟画的画风,虽然初以黄案父子的画格为标准,但是到了易元吉而画风稍变,倾向于徐熙,正如米芾所说,易元吉是徐熙后第一人,而米芾于花鸟画是最重徐熙的。

十一,试述元代画竹的著名画家。

(3) THE GOLDEN AGE oF CHINEsE PAINTING (581 A.D. – 1278 A.D.)

当宋代初期,翰林图画院大抵沿五代旧制而稍加扩大,用以覊縻画人,罗致艺术家。徽宗政和时成立画学,把绘画并入于科举学校制,翰林图画院之制度乃大备,开了艺术教育上的新局。现分别从入学,肄业、考绩、待遇等方面加以说明。

元代(公元一二七七年至一三六七年)以蒙古族统治中国,重武功而轻文事,艺术事业受到摧残。这时期的花鸟画家一般走着两条路子,其一就是以摹仿古人为能事的复古派,其二就是以绘画为墨戏,聊以自娱的文人画。复古派的画家如钱选、王渊、陈仲仁等,师法前代画家黄荃、赵昌,继承院体画的遣风,竞尚工丽,但此风不久亦渐趋式微,而由一种文人画水墨花鸟代之而兴。文人画家在元朝服宫职的,有高克恭和赵孟俯。高克恭字彦敬,号房山,曾任元朝刑部尚书,能写墨竹。赵孟俯字子昂,号松雪道人,湖州人,宋太祖十一世孙,服元官至翰林学士承旨。他早年从钱选学画,善画花鸟人物走兽。他的夫人管道升,字仲姬,精写墨竹、梅兰,晴竹新篁,人所争购。元季四大家,黄公望,吴镇、倪瓒、王蒙,其中吴镇与倪瓒,除山水外,尤精水墨画竹。吴镇字仲圭,号梅花道人,嘉兴人,所画墨竹,气魄雄厚,笔力坚重。倪瓒字符镇,号云林,所作竹石,天真幽淡,称为逸晶。

花鸟画自五代徐熙与黄茎并立后,其势力已可与山水人物并立。入宋以后,人物画且已渐呈衰微,而山水、花鸟乃欣欣向荣,达于鼎盛之局。宋初的花鸟画名家就是黄荃的儿子黄居案和徐熙的孙子崇嗣,崇勋、崇矩。他们各承家学,又吸取众长,都有很大的成就。但是由于黄居案在皇家翰林图画院中甚得皇帝的宠遇,所以黄氏一派不但支配了院内,而且也影响了院外。宋宣和画家说:荃、居案画法,自祖宗以来,图画院为一时之标准,较艺者视黄氏体制为优劣去取。这种趋势;,由于帝皇的递代,后来渐有转变,所谓野逸的徐体,又得到了复兴,而与黄体兼收并蓄,合而为一。

文人画在明中叶勃兴,独霸明朝;之艺坛,梅兰竹菊之绘画亦因而大盛,名家甚多。画竹名家有宋克、王绂、夏昶、鲁得之等;尤以夏昶名闻遐迩,最为艺林所推重。夏昶字仲昭,为太常寺卿,画竹石初师王绂,其后稍变,所作竹枝,烟姿雨色,偃直浓疏,曲尽其妙。其画为外邦所争购,有夏卿一个竹,西凉十锭金之谣。墨梅名家,有王冕、陈献章等多人,而以王冕为首。王冕字符章,画梅潇洒不群,冠绝一时,与夏昶之墨竹,并驾齐驱。从之学者以周吴、孙从吉为最着。明代四君子的绘画,颇为普遍,独以画兰著名者,有周天球,字公瑕,所画墨兰,飞舞人妙,间作花卉亦佳。

一、中国美术史,可划分为那几个时期?

吴元瑜字公器,京师人,花鸟亦学崔白。宣和画谱说他师崔白,能变世俗之气所谓院体者,而素为院体之人,亦因元瑜革去故态,稍稍放笔墨以出胸臆。吴氏甚至能使翰林图画院:中人因他改从野逸的作风,可见他成就之大与风格的动人了。

十四、试列举清代著名的花鸟画家。

FLOWER-AND-BIRD PAINTING OF SUNG DYNASTY AND THE IMPERIAL ACADEMEY

Flower-and-bird painting flourished in the Imperial Academy of the Sung
Dynasty (960-1276 A.D.). The school of Huang Chuen and that of Hsu Hsi
each practiced their own technique and Huang Chu-cho,son of Huang
Chuen,was highly honoured by the Emperors of the early Sung period and
given a high position in the Imperial Academy. His style of realistic
painting was therefore more influential. During the later
reigns,however,the descendants of Hsu Hsi found new :patrons at court
and a combined technique of the realistic and the impressionistic styles
became in fashion in the Imperial Academy. Among the best known are Tsu
Pat,Tus Koh,Wu Yuen-yu,Chao Cheon. One of the outstanding Sung
painters and in many ways a figure who symbolizes the strength and the
weakness of this period was the artist-emperor Hui Tsung (Chao Chi). A
celebrated poet and calligrapher,Hui Tsung was a versatile artist who
was greatly admired for his accomplishments in flower-and-bird
painting, He was more important we believe,as a collector and patron
of the arts. During his reign,the Imperial Academy of painting which
his predecessors has already placed on equal footing with the
departments of literature,reached its full development. His collection
of paintings,bronzes and objects of art was the finest China had ever
known,and its Catalogue is still one of the important sources for the
knowledge of Chinese art. The paintings of the imperialcollection were
divided into ten main classes,the most numerous being the group of
flower-and-bird paintings which show the emperors preference for this
genre. Over one third of the some six thousand odd paintings belonged to
this category. Despite his culture and refinement,Emperor Hui
Tsung,however,met a tragic end and died miserably in captivity after
the northern invaders of China had conquered and sacked his
capital,which marked the end of the Northern Sung period. The court of
Sung Dynasty moved to their new capital of Hangchow and the Imperial
Academy was re-established. During this age of the SouthernSung period
the great cultural traditions were carried on and many well known
painters flourished. The Southern Sung Dynasty also produced quite a
number of excellent painters of flower- and-bird,among whom Li
An-chung,Li Tih,and Lin Chung were best noted. All these painters
developed a common attitude towards art,i.e.,art as an artistic
representation of nature. A close observation of nature was therefore a
necessary course of study. Historical accounts tell how Chao Cheon
carefully studied the dewy flowers every early morning,and how Yih
Ynen-chi built his own garden with pools,rocks,plants and birds in
it,and even went far away into the great mountains for the study of
wild fowls and animals. Another story tells how the great painter
Emperor Hui Tsung saw one day a peacock sauntering under a lichee tree
by a fatten pedestal and he at once told his court painters to do this
delightful scene. To his disappointment none could produce a painting
that might conform to his command. A few days later the Emperor pointed
out that they all did something wrong with the peacock lifting its right
leg to mount the ratten pedestal. The Emperor said to his bewildered
court painters,When a peacock ascends its steps,it invariably lifts
its left leg first. With gaping mouths the court painters willingly
admitted the truth of the Emperors criticism.

In the Yuan,Ming and Ching Dynasties,the great tradition of Chinese
pain-ting lived on. Numerous ingenious painters produced countless
masterpieces of art,but this epoch,on the whole,was artistically less
creative than the Tang and Sung Dynasties.

黄家花鸟画的画格,为宋初图画院较艺之标准,已如上述。这种风气至崔白、崔殷、吴元输出始大变,可见崔,吴诸人在花鸟画史上地位的重要。崔白,字子西,濠梁人。神宗时授图画院画学艺,固辞,乃为御前祗应。他于画无所不能,尤工花鸟,好作败荷亮雁,一变黄氏父子的体法,予当时画坛以重大的刺激。宣和画谱对他有很高的评价:所画无不精绝,落笔运思即成,不假于绳尺,曲直方圆皆中法度。汤重画鉴载崔白所画大轴,阔一丈许,长二丈许,中浓墨涂作八大雁,尽飞呜宿食之态。由此可见他画风放逸,近于徐熙一派。
.

八、试举列南宋著名的花鸟画家并说明其画风。

This epoch dates back from the prehistoric painting to that of the Hart
Dynasty.

惮寿平,初名格,号南田。诗格超逸,书法俊秀,画笔生动,时称三绝。画花卉.禽鱼,为写生正派。蒋廷锡字杨孙,号西沙,官至大学士。工画花卉,有惮寿平清新的品格。邹一桂字原手褒,号小山,笔墨秀雅设色明净,所画花卉婀娜如生。蒋与邹一家均善画,祖孙三代均以花卉名。

周之冕创造的钧花点叶法,陈洪绶独特的工笔花鸟体式,都为有明一代的花鸟画生色不少。

元代画竹之风甚盛,除前述之高克恭、赵孟俯等人之外,专门画竹或兼习画竹的画家甚多。画竹亦可分焉工笔和写意两派。工笔钩勒青绿着色者,有张逊、王伯时、杨清溪等。写意的画竹大家,如李行、柯九思、杨维翰、宋敏等,纯以水墨写出竹之神趣,为元代绘画创一新格局。李衍字仲宾,世为燕人,吏部尚书,拜集贤殿大学士。他的写竹深得文同、苏轼之妙,后出使交趾,深入竹乡于竹之形色情状,辨析精微,足为元代写竹之泰斗。着有竹谱。一书传世。柯九思字敬体,号丹丘生,台州人,官至奎章合鉴书博士,博学能文。墨竹师文同,亦善墨花,笔势生动,论者谓文同后第一人。李衍与柯九思,都是最著名的元代画竹专家。

In the multitute of plants four have been chosen by the Chinese literad
to personify a noble gentleman. Plum,orchid,bamboo,and
chrysanthemum,all being suppesed to peases the characteristics of a
perfect gentleman,have long been regarded as the four favorites of men
of letters.They are honorably called Four Paragons by Chinese painters.
Sturdiness and chastity have always been attributed to the plum
tree,which often blossom in severely cold weather. Fach of the other
three signifies a noble virtue,too. Despite Ioneliness and negligence
the orchid still breathes a subtle fragrance in the most deserted
valley,which the bamboo grows upright,and the chrysanthemum stands the
attacks of tile frost.

The introduction of foreign art,especially Buddhistic painting and
sculpture,influenced and inspired the Chinese art of this epoch.

七,试述宋徽宗(赵信)的花鸟画风格。

THE FOUR EPOCHS OF CHINESE PAINTING

扬州在清代乃临商集中之地,商贾云集,地处江北,有运河北达通州西到杭州。在这个繁华的都市裹,产生所谓扬州八怪即罗聘、李方膺、李觯;金农、黄慎、郑燮、高翔、汪士慎等,八怪画风奇诡,富创造性,多擅花鸟杂画,或梅兰竹菊。八怪中的郑燮,号板桥,工诗词书画,擅画兰竹,名重一时。金农、李方膺,汪士慎的墨梅,写出梅的精神,最具特色。清代后半叶的花鸟画,首推华嵒。华嵒字秋岳,号新罗山人,闽之临.汀人。他能画山水人物花鸟草虫,写雀鸟尤佳,精妙而生动,机趣天然。任熊字渭长,擅钩勒法,工花鸟山水人物。任颐字伯年,人物花鸟,仿北宋双钩法,设色佳妙。吴俊卿字仓石,一字昌硕,号缶庐,善花卉竹石,名噪一时。

Among the best-known painters of Four Paragons in the Sung Dynasty,the
following are the few very great names: Wen Tung and Su Shih,famous for
bamboo in ink; Ghu Pai,for plum; Cheng Sze-chiu,Chao Men-chin,for
orchid; Chao Chan,Chiu

(2)肄业
画人被录取入院而后,为画学生。画院分设科目,分列等级,并兼习辅助学科。宋史选举志说:画学之业,曰佛道,曰人物、曰山水,曰鸟兽、曰花竹、曰屋木。以说文、尔雅,释名教授。

明代(公元一三六八年一六四三年)建国以后,继承宋代体制,恢复翰林画院,广集人材。但是由于明代帝皇的专制,严刑峻罚,画院裹的画家为奉承圣旨,多是摹仿古人画意,兢兢业业以求无过。故明代二百余年,画院之盛,虽不减两宋,然画艺之创作殊微;在元朝已盛极一时的文人画,在明初顿现衰颓之运,至明代中叶,又见复兴,其后文人画竟独霸明朝之艺坛,而院体花鸟画渐趋泯灭。

China eftjoyed the most glorious epoch of painting,dating from
Sui,Tang to

满清入主中国(公元一六四四年一九一一年),一切典章制度,大抵衍袭明朝之矩范,画风亦直接明季,临摹仿古,较少新创。清代设如意馆,罗致雕刻、绘画,工艺等作者。此外还有一些不属于如意馆的御用画家,设立内廷供奉、内廷祗候等职位,以待画士。清代的花鸟画,以惮寿平没骨着色花卉,色调清新绝伦,为清初名家。石涛和尚和八大山人天才横溢,花鸟画亦独树一帜。蒋廷锡、邹一桂两家,继惮寿平遗韵,亦善着色。其后有扬州八怪。诸家,以隽逸闻于当时。清未有任熊、任颐,能用钧勒,长于着色,应物象形,为后起之秀。吴俊卿-以篆榴之笔入画,纵横跌宕,自成一格,为清末宗匠。

文同,字与可,梓潼人。他善画墨竹,富潇洒之姿,深得竹子的神态,凝风可动。他深入观察,了解竹子的生长形态,所以晁补之说,与可画竹,胸中有成竹。正是这个缘故。,苏轼,字子瞻,号东坡厝士,四川眉山人。他的竹石出于文同而更有魄力。画竹不仅以墨,有时兴之所至,还用朱色,因此有所谓朱竹的格式。

六、试举列北宋著名的花鸟画家并说明其绘画的风格

The Yuan artists had carried on the traditions of the Sung period
although their work lacked the brilliance and depth of the great Sung
masters. The Yuan rule didnot quite last a century and was Overthrown in
1368 A.D. by the Ming Dynasty. ChienSun,Wang Yuen,Chan Chung-jen are
among the best-known few of the Yuan painters of flower-and,birds. The
Ming Dynasty ( 1368,1643 A.D.) re-established the Imperial Academy and
great painters were summoned to court. But since strict rules were laid
down by order of the Emperor,artists didnt dare to do anything against
tradition,and if they painted at all they paiuted to please His Majesty
the Emperor.Pen Wen-tsin,Lu Chi,and a little later,Lin Liang,won a
name as a great academician. Yet literary men of the Ming Dynasty
developed the impressionistic style with marked success,which became
the fashion of the day outside the Imperial Academy. Great names include
Chen Tsun,Chu Wei,who painted with diluted ink in bold,strong
brushstrokes. Chou Tze-min adop-ted a combined technique of using the
elaborate method to paint the flowers and the impressionistic method tot
paint the leaves,while ~Chen Hung- sou distinguished himself with his
own peculiar technique of doing his elaborate paintings. The rulers of
the Ching DYnsaty (1644-1911 A.D.) followed the footsteps of the Ming
Emperors and traditional standards were Carefully observed. In the field
of flower-and-bird painting,however,great achievements were still
evident. Yun Nan-tien painted with the non-outlining method,which was
supposed to be the better way to present the fresh coloura of flowers.
Hua Jen,Li Tsen,and Chin Ngon prefered simple brushstrokes,and each
of them created a particular style of painting. Shih Tao and Chu
Tah,two descendants of the royal family of the MinE Dynasty,painted in
a very peculiar way to show their very distinguished personality.

明初流行的工笔钩勒设色花鸟画,类多研丽工致,其著者有边文进、吕纪两家。边文进字景昭,沙县人,精花鸟画,为武英殿待诏。他的花鸟画形象生动,用色蕴藉,钩勒有笔,用墨得宜。吕纪字廷振,号东愚,弘治中,入御用监。凡画草木花鸟,生意流动,泉石波景,点染烟润,得造化之妙。

宋代翰林图画院之设立,无论在绘画史上和在艺术教育史上,都是值得注意的工件事。宫廷罗致画家,由来甚古,但皆备位于他种职街,给画家挂上一个街头而已,如唐朝阎立本称工部尚书,封大安县公,李思训称左武卫大将军等。设待诏等职以专遇画家,则流行于五代、南唐、前后蜀,其风尤甚。宋代统一之业既成,先前供职于前后蜀、后唐、后梁等的画家,纷纷来归,于是所谓翰林图画院者,益加扩大。待诏、祗候、艺学、画学正、学生、供奉等级别也增多了。有宋一代画院职人,在画史可考的,也达到一百五、六十人,当然不可考的还有很多。其间自徽宗之后,以及宋室南渡以还,长期连续盛况不衰。所谓院体画,也就是在这盛况之下产生的。

三、试列举唐代著名的花鸟画家,并说明其绘画的作风。

唐代有两位域外的画家,都是花鸟画的能手。据唐僧彦惊后画录所载,尉迟乙僧攻四时花木,又说康萨陀初花晚叶,变态多端,异兽奇禽,千形万品。尉迟乙僧和康萨陀,都是西域人。

Two great writers of the Sung Dynasty,Su SiH and Mi Fei,invented a new
style of painting,called the literati style. They insisted that
paintings were no copies of nature,anti they even went so far as to say
that paintings might bear no resemblance of nature at all. It is a
famous saying from Su Sih that it is only a childs standard of art to
judge a painting by its likeness to the subject.What did they do then?
Men of letters in China are usually fond of painting and calligraphy.
They played with ink and brush. and the strokes they laid here and there
on the paper only expressed their feelings and emotions,never meant to
describe things. But the literati style was now only at the beg-
inning,after all,and few artists practised this theory till the Yuan
and Ming Dynasties.

边鸾之后,唐末还有两位著名的花鸟画家,即刁光胤与滕昌佑。益州名画录。对他们两人,都有较详尽的描述。据说,刁光胤攻画湖石、花竹、猫兔、鸟雀,性情高洁,交游不杂,入蜀之后,同辈有攻花雀者顿减矣。他有弟子二人,一名孔嵩,一名黄荃。黄荃就是后来五代花鸟画祖师之一。与刁光胤同时,蜀中花鸟画名家尚有滕昌佑。据说他先本吴人,随僖宗入蜀,以文学从事,不婚不仕,书画是好,情性高洁,不肯趋时,尝于所居树竹,石,祀、菊,种名花异草以资其画。其折枝花,下笔轻利,用色鲜研。初攻画无师,惟写生物,以似为工而已。由此也可知他的花鸟画造诣之深了。

在同时期中,古代欧洲各国,并无足与中国花鸟画比拟的花鸟画艺术。直至十五世纪欧洲文艺复兴时代,花鸟画仅作为人物画的衬托。作为独立体裁的花鸟画,则兴起于荷兰画派,那时已是十六世纪后半叶。十六世纪的荷兰画家,开始把瓶花作为绘画的主题,益以飞蛾彩蝶,生趣盎然。

崔白的弟弟崔殷,字子中,亦善画花鸟,作风与白相同。宣和画谱说:殷之所画,笔法规模与白相若,凡造景写物,必放手铺张,而为图未尝琐碎,作花竹多在于水边花外之趣。至于写蠢汀,苇岸;风鸳、雪雁,有未起先攻之意,殆有得于地偏无人之态也。

十三、试述明代著名的梅兰竹菊画家。

梅兰竹菊是中国画常见的题材。中国的文学家将每一种著名的花卉就其不同的性格而赋予各种象征的意义,画家则将其含义全部接受过来,创作出一种富有象征性的绘画。梅在冬天开花,以耐寒见称;兰于空谷吐艳,以幽芳知着,竹正直而心虚,有清风亮节,菊经霜而不凋,有傲然之志。梅兰竹菊各自具有一种高雅的质量,因此被一些文人画家称为四君子。四君子作为画家创作的主题,始于何时,众说不一。据古今图书集成引十国春秋记,说南唐郭崇韬将军伐蜀,卢蜀中李夫人为妻。夫人悒悒不乐,尝于月下独坐,见竹影婆娑,就纸窗摹写,乃成墨竹。墨竹未必始于李夫人,但花鸟画既自唐始,则唐后而有墨竹之法,殆亦可信。不过以梅兰竹菊这四种花木完全人画,含有文学的象征意味,代表着君子的质量的,则于宋开其端绪。文同,苏轼的思竹,崔白的墨梅,郑思肖、赵孟坚的墨兰,以及趟昌、邱庆余、黄居案等的画菊,已使梅兰竹菊之绘画,蔚为大观,给元、明两代的文入画铺了道路。

FLOWER-AND-BIRD PAINTING OF THE YUAN,MING,AND CHING DYNASTIES

南宋建都于临安(杭州),虽偏安一隅,国势稍衰,而画院之盛,不减北宋。高宗精书画,人物、山水、竹木,无不精妙。花鸟画仍是笼罩在工整细润的院体画风之下,一时名家也都出自画院。其代表作家,习黄荃一派者有李安忠,习徐熙一派者有李迪,习赵昌者有林椿,习易元吉者有陈善,师马贲者有马兴祖。他们的作品虽不离追求形似与工整之风,但稳淡纤细之趣也日渐明显了。南宋末年,优秀的画家,有郑思肖、赵孟坚、杨先咎等。郑思肖精墨兰,赵孟坚长于花卉竹石,尤善画水仙,以水墨白描法出之,清秀雅淡,有荒汀空谷之趣。杨先咎亦擅梅竹松石水仙,笔法清淡闲逸,盖宋末作风也。

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